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Romanian Nouns – Plural Formation

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Nouns ending in a consonant add -i:

an ( year) – ani (years)
elev (pupil) – elevi (pupils)
profesor (teacher) – profesori (teachers)
român (Romanian) – români (Romanians)

There are several changes that occur in nouns ending in the following consonants:
c/ci        copac (tree) – copaci (trees)
d/zi        ghid (guide) – ghizi (guides)
t/ț           bărbat (man) – bărbați (men)
z/ji          obraz (cheek) – obraji (cheeks
s/și         pas (step) – pași (steps)
t/ți           student (student) – studenți (students)
st/ști       artist (artist) – artiști (artists)
ian/ieni   australian (Australian) – australieni (Australians)

Nouns ending in -e, -u, -ă, replace these vowels with -i:
câine (dog) – câini
rege (king) – regi (kings)
fiu (son) – fii
leu (lion) – lei
popă* (priest) – popi (priests)

The following nouns ending in –l replace the final –l with –i:
cal (horse) – cai (horses)
miel (lamb) – mei (lambs)
vițel (calf) – viței (calves)
cățel (puppy) – căței (puppies)
copil (child) – copii (children)

Nouns ending in –i remain unchanged:
arici (hedgehog) – arici (hedgehogs)
ardei (pepper) – ardei (peppers)
pui (chicken) – pui (cickens)
muschi (muscle) – muschi (muscles)
ochi (eye) – ochi (eyes)
unchi (uncle) – unchi (uncles)

The following masculine nouns are irregular:
om (man) - oameni (men)
popă (priest) - popi (priests)
tată (father) – tați (fathers)


Plural of Feminine nouns

Some nouns replace -ă with –i
lună (moon, month) – luni (moons, months)
mașină (car) – mașini (cars)
grădină (garden) – grădini (gardens)
păpușă (doll) – păpuși (dolls)
ușă (door) – uși (doors)

Note! Mind the phonetic changes triggered by the final –i:
a/ă
sală (hall) – săli (halls)
cană (mug) – căni (mugs)
gară (railway station) – gări (railway stations)
ă/i
mămică (mummy) – mămici (mummies)
bunică (grandmother) – bunici (grandmothers)
pungă (bag) – pungi (bags)
amendă (fine) – amenzi (fines)
nuntă (wedding) – nunți (weddings)

Some nouns replace -ă with –e
fată (girl) – fete (girls)
față (face) – fețe (faces)
casă (house) – case (houses)
navă (ship) – nave (ships)

Some nouns replace -ă with -uri
blană – blănuri (fur)
marfă – mărfuri (merchandise)
iarbă – ierburi (herb)
dulceață (jam) – dulcețuri

Some nouns replace -e with -i
lume (world) – lumi (worlds)
noapte (night) – nopți (nights)
carte (book) – cărți (books)

Some nouns replace -ie with -i(i)
pălărie ( hat) – pălării (hats)
felie (slice) – felii (slices)
baie (bathroom) – băi (bathrooms)
femeie (woman) – femei (women)

Some nouns replace –a with –a+le
basma (kerchief) – basmale (kerchiefs)
balama (hinge) – balamale (hinges)
pijama (pyjamas) – pijamale

Some nouns replace –ea with –ele
cafea (coffee) – cafele
lalea (tulip) – lalele (tulips)
saltea (mattress) – saltele (mattresses)

Nouns ending in –i remain unchanged:
marți (Tuesday) – marți
miercuri (Wednesday) - miercuri
tanti (aunt) - tanti

The following feminine nouns are irregular:
soră (sister) – surori (sisters)
noră (daughter-in-law) – nurori (daughters-in-law)
zi (day) – zile (days)

Plural of Neuter Nouns

Some nouns ending in a consonant add –e:
Oraș (city) – orașe (cities)
sat (village) – sate (villages)
grad (degree) – grade (degrees)
punct (point) – puncte (points)

Some nouns ending in a consonant add –uri
loc (place) – locuri (places)
joc (game) – jocuri (games)
tren (train) – trenuri (trains)
timp (time) – timpuri (times)

Some nouns ending in -i add –e or -uri
cui (nail) – cuie (nails)
tramvai (tram) – tramvaie (trams)
călcâi (heel) – călcâie (heels)
taxi (taxi) – taxiuri (taxis)
meci (match) – meciuri (matches)

Some nouns replace final -u with –e or -uri:
timbru (stamp) – timbre (stamps)
muzeu (theatre) – muzee (theatres)
membru (limb) – membre (limbs)
liceu (high school) – licee (high schools)
lac (lake) – lacuri (lakes)
pat (bed) – paturi (beds)
râu (river) – râuri (rivers)

Nouns ending -iu form their plural with the ending -ii:
teritoriu (territoriy) – teritorii ( territories)
exercițiu (exercise) – exerciții (exercises)
fotoliu (armchair) – fotolii (armchairs)

Nouns ending in an unstressed –e usually have same form in singular and plural:
nume (name) – nume (names)
pronume (pronoun) – pronume (pronouns)
spate (back) – spate (backs)
exception: dulce (dessert) – dulciuri (desserts)

Nouns ending in a stressed –e form their plural in –uri:
pate (pâté) – pateuri (pâtés)
file (filet) – fileuri (fillets)

Irregular neuter nouns:
ou (egg) – ouă (eggs)
cap (head) – capete (heads)
seminar (seminary) – seminarii (seminaries)


Singularia tantum
Some nouns occur only in a singular context:
lene (laziness), rușine (disgrace), teamă (fear), curaj (courage), bunătate (goodness), amabilitate (kindness)
argint (silver), nisip (sand), miere (honey)
atletism (atlethics), tenis (tennis)
geografie (geography), fizică (physics), muzică (music)

Pluralia tantum
Some nouns occur only in the plural:
Icre (roe, caviar), spaghete (spaghetti), tăiței (noodles), zori (dawn)

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